Recently parliamentary elections have been concluded in Bhutan, a small Himalaya lone between two big and powerful neighbors, like India and China.
So far, three parliamentary elections have been held in Bhutan, which has a population of eight lakhs, and three times, different parties have come to power.
Like the last two parliamentary elections, this time too, the new party got the chance to come to power. In this, the new party DNT has won 30 out of 47 seats.
The Center LeTpart Dal DNT was ousted in the first round of the last elections but this time it has done astonishing performance.
The popularity of this party has increased so much that the ruling People’s Democratic Party was third in the first phase and missed the second round.
This change of power can affect the internal politics of Bhutan and its neighbors, relationships can be found, its investigation
Bhutan’s election system
The name of Bhutan in the local language is Druk Yul i.e. the country of the dragon flying and fires. The special thing is that for many centuries, Bhutan remained cut off from the rest of the world. They never made any colony of anybody. It has adopted very few things and things in the outside world and it has been preserving its culture and traditions.
In the beginning of the 19th century, after the birth of a war of civil war, in the year 1907, the Wangchuk dynasty came to power. This dynasty united Bhutan and made a relationship with the British rule.
Since then, Bhutan has remained a full monarchy for almost 99 years, and his close relationship with India remained. In 2006, Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuk took over the throne of Bhutan and in 2008 established a two-party parliamentary democracy.
Why live each time a different party?
Former member of the National Security Advisory Board and founder vice president of Sikkim University Professor Mahendra P. Lama explains that there is a lot in Bhutan from India’s democratic systems, but there are some things that are different.
Professor Mahendra P Lama explains, “In 2008, for the first time a Constitution was created in Bhutan and elections like Parliament were held where there is an Election Commission, but he made the rule that there will be elections in two phases, whatever the parties want to contest. In the first round, the top two parties, who will get maximum votes, will be allowed to withdraw their candidature. There will be competition between candidates. ”
The first parliamentary elections in Bhutan 2008, the second, 2013 and the third are completed now. In this DNT party has won 30 out of 47 seats. This is the same party which had already been out of the previous elections in 2013.
The interesting thing is that the last time the People’s Democratic Party (PDP), which was in power, was out in the first round this time. Similarly, PDT had come to power in the first elections (2008), but it had to face defeat in the next elections.
What is the reason behind the fact that in different elections, the public has given opportunity to new parties? Why do the people in power have to face defeat badly? Sd Muni, professor of South Asian Affairs, explains that there is dissatisfaction with the public and there is also the role of Raja.
Professor SD Muni explains, “The first thing is that the king has given the democracy there, the people did not ask for it, the people are not even happy with it, so they change and see which government will be fine, I do not think that monarchy also wants to see who can give stability to Bhutan and make progress, so both of them are together giving such results. Because not get the Osh they tend to change every time the government and holds it agreed to somewhere King. ”
Internet brought changes
In Bhutan until 1999 the TV did not come. For many years the country has kept itself separate from it. It seemed that the outer world did not ruin the monarchy and culture here.
The Internet came only in 1999 with the TV. Professor Mahendra P. Lama explains that after this people understood what development is and what the expectations of the people are increasing with political parties.
He explains, “There has not been much development here, there were no roads, no drinking water, no hospital, no schools, people were satisfied in this, they were happy to share their views with their communities. The entire politics and economy of the country used to be the king and the council of ministers was also named. But when the elections were held for the first time, people thought that if voted for a good party, it could be possible.
The leader of the DNT created in 2013 is Lote Tshering Surgeon. After poor performance in the last elections, the victory of this victory is being given to his election campaign, whose name was ‘Naroong the Gap’, that is, he will try to bridge the gap between different sections of society.
According to Professor Mahendra P Lama, after the Internet came to the conclusion that when people saw what development is, schools, colleges and hospitals were affected, their wishes were affected. According to him, the promotion of political parties, especially the winning party DNT was based on this matter.
He points out, “The minimum support price in the DNC manifesto, the poor children who had failed in the 10th, had to give up till 12th, giving sanitary pad to the girl students, it seemed that the bodies are being held in Delhi or Rajasthan. This means that there is a shortage of resources and infrastructure in remote areas. ”
What will be the status of DNT coming into power?
During the election campaign, DNT also said that he would work towards liberating Bhutan from foreign debt.
More than 80 percent of Bhutan’s foreign debt is invested in Hydropower Projects and most of it is India’s debt. Recently India has financed four of the five new power projects here. So can DNT influence the relations with India after coming to power?
Professor SD Muni believes that if he goes ahead with his economic agenda then he can get the impression. He says, “If they want to reduce investment in hydro projects and open another industry, then there will be a slight impact, but hydro power is becoming expensive, India itself is becoming self-reliant in this matter, sources of alternative energy are also coming. So the interest for India’s hydro power is decreasing, so Bhutan is also worried that if this happens, then what will be the basis of its economy, that’s why it has diversified its economy Ana wants. If they proceed in this direction so that it will not join India in other industries. But today’s framework of economic relations between the two countries, have him come bearing. ”
What is the complaint to Bhutan from India?
India used to undertake projects in Bhutan as a first grant and used to make five years of plans in India. But now that he invests, he lends in a way that repays by exporting electricity produced from Bhutan power projects. But due to its lower rates, there is discontent in Bhutan.
Professor Mahendra P. Lama explains, “Bhutan says that the electricity that we give to India is giving it on Goodwill price, India is taking it in two rupees and the same electricity in Delhi will be sold at seven rupees per unit. They say that make three and a half rupees or four rupees so that we can repay your loan, but India does not agree with it, so Bhutan fears that it will not become a country in debt. T should think, because this demand is justified. ”
The second demand of Bhutan is that you allow us to sell this electricity to other countries, such as Bangladesh etc. so that it can get more value. Professor Lama explains that both of these demands of Bhutan seem to be justified.
Can the new government affect China?
Assuming that if the ruling DNT government wants to take some action on this issue, will it have rights? Do Bhutanese parliament have the right to make important decisions related to the economy and foreign policy?
In this regard, Professor SD Muni explains, “Parliament is a strong power, but the real power is with the king. Parliament is in the foreign policy, but this time, the Election Commission had said that on India-China and other sensitive issues The parties will not talk. ”
He explains, “The people of Bhutan feel a lot more dependent on India and they want to reduce it, they do not want to be removed completely because they know that this is not possible, they have boundaries from India on three sides. The point is that whether Bhutan wants or not, China wants to bring herself into South Asia and in Bhutan, she would want Bhutan to give it a call but Bhutan would not want it. So, as you can see, Bhutan does not want to be completely away from India. ”
‘Bhutan is responsible for understanding India on India’
Professor Muni explains that the DNT government will not be able to do anything in opposition to India because it has got votes of the People’s Democratic Party (PDP), which has been ousted in the first round, which is considered to be India. That is, the new vote bank they got, the support of Bharatvakshi people is much more. ”
Due to being strategically important in the geographical area, Bhutan has been stuck between India and China for a long time. In South Asia, mutual competition between India and China is not hidden from anyone. The influence of China is growing on those who were considered close to India. From Nepal to Maldives it is clearly seen.
There was a dispute between India and China in Dokalam last year. In such a situation, the new government will have a stand on India and China. Professor Mahendra P Lama explains that there has been a lot of change now in Bhutan.
“India will no longer have a relationship with Bhutan in a traditional way, the views of youth, new bureaucrats and politicians are very different from the 80s, and if India does not take these feelings properly, tensions can also come in China. There is a lot of effort to come in. It has been seen that how much tension has occurred in China in the Maldives, so if Bhutan becomes China’s embassy, there will be a lot of change. Itik should focus on building relationships with the people of India and accordingly should adopt new direction being generous. India must understand the expectations of the people of Bhutan. ”
Experts say that the priority of the new government of Bhutan will continue to enhance its economy and social development as well as security and sovereignty and strengthening.
They also say that after coming to democracy, there has been a lot of difference in today’s Bhutan compared to the 90s.
People have started giving priority to development and development is also coming. But right now here democracy is in the early stages and it will take some time to deepen and mature.